09 Ene It variation didn’t apply at the new European sex workers
The problem of Trafficking
Trafficking turned up to the political agenda immediately after tension regarding feminists and you can the federal ladies coverage agency. To begin with, women was basically trafficked out of The southern part of Asia (somewhat Thailand therefore the Philippines), Latin America (Columbia and also the Dominican Republic and you may Africa (Ghana); after the slide of your Berlin Wall, change paths shifted in order to Main and Eastern European countries. Political need was identifying the fresh new offense even more generally to help you facilitate prosecution and you can increasing the penalty from 5 to 6 years, so culprits might be stored from inside the remand infant custody. The posts about penal code on people trafficking have been changed for the 1993, that have a perfect definition of the brand new offense and better charges to have traffickers (Outshoorn 2004a: 195). The fresh new content were framed when you look at the a beneficial gender-basic way, and you can trafficking stayed identified as forcing one on the prostitution.
In the parliamentary debates on trafficking around that period, foreign women were portrayed as victims of unscrupulous traffickers tricked into prostitution. This framing was tied into a discourse about the divide between the rich and poor countries: female prostitutes from the ‘Third World’ were driven by poverty. Gradually, a more insidious edge crept into this discourse when Christian Democrats in parliament linked trafficking to illegal migration, opening a space for ‘false’ victims, who used the loopholes in the law to work illegally as a prostitute in the Netherlands (HTK, 1991–1992, TK 81, pp. 4994, 4995, e time they also started to argue that all women from non-EU countries working in the sex industry were victims of forced prostitution. Therefore in their view, the best remedy to stop trafficking was to prevent non-EU women from working in the Dutch sex industry in the first place. This reasoning eradicated the figure of a woman migrant deciding to work as a sex worker in the West and who might make use of intermediaries to enter the country-with her consent. But then she was ‘illegal’ and ought to be deported.
Successive cabinets continued to refuse work permits on similar grounds, also arguing there was no national interest at stake which normally justifies extending work permits to non-EU persons. They were backed by a recurring majority in parliament; the parliamentary records show many references to the fear of foreign prostitutes entering the country which would subvert immigration policies. The fear resurfaced in the memorandum to the bill to lift the brothel ban, as one of the aims read the article of the bill was to halt ‘the stream of foreign prostitutes’ (HTK 1996–97, 25437 (Opheffing Algemeen Bordeelverbod), no. 3 (Memorie van Toelichting), 1 July 1997, p. 13). The refusal to grant work permits was also generally justified by the aim of stopping the trafficking of women; permits would encourage traffickers to transport women into the country.
Kinds of Sex Specialists
Next implementation of brand new operate lead to the building from zero lower than four types of prostitutes. To start with, you’ve got the ethnically vague Dutch sex employee which willingly determines to work during the prostitution and that’s the fresh bearer out-of municipal and societal legal rights. Subsequently, you will find the fresh prostitutes off their European union nations who will disperse easily in-and-out of the Netherlands and you may are employed in the fresh new sex globe. This category divided into two categories following accession on Eu of your Baltic Says, Poland, Hungary, the brand new Czech Republic and you will Slovakia into the 2004, and work out a third category who can simply lawfully behave as prostitutes when they was indeed separate sex gurus and never teams. In 2007, sex specialists on the the newest European union people were accepted for the a keen equal ground into earlier Eu member professionals, but the 3rd classification is actually today full of sex pros off Bulgaria and Romania when both countries joined the fresh new Eu in this exact same seasons. Like their predecessors, these types of ladies are permitted to work as independent sex pros, however, up until now notably less teams.